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READING LIST

A Library of Books about North Africa

First of all I have picked out four works which might provide a useful cumulative introduction to the History of North Africa.

This is followed by a dozen titles for those wanting to tighten their focus on the ancient and classical period of North Africa.

Topped up by a country-by-country listing (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia as well as the Sahara) of books written for a much wider audience to include novels and travel as well as specific regional and national histories, to make a small, specialist library.

  • Ancient North Africa | Algeria | Libya | Morocco | Tunisia | Sahara

    NORTH AFRICA, general studies

    • Abun-Nasr, Jamil M., History of the Maghreb in the Islamic Period, Cambridge, 1987 — a very great and still unsurpassed regional history by a Lebanese scholar working from Germany.
    • Brett, Michael and Fentress, Elizabeth, The Berbers, Blackwell, 1996 — essential first building block for any real understanding of the indigenous race, language and traditions of North Africa.
    • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de L'Afrique du Nord (2 volumes), Paris 1978 — a prime source to be placed right beside Abun Nasr.
    • Rogerson, Barnaby, A Travellers History of North Africa, Duckworths, 2012 (Third Edition), the simplest historical survey but the most wide ranging in terms of time and geography.

    ANCIENT NORTH AFRICA

    • Birley, Anthony, Septimius Severus, The African Emperor, Batsford 1988 — the standard biography which will lead you back to the three prime original sources: Dio Cassius, Herodian and the Augustan History — to be trusted in that order. I would avoid the slim biography of Septimius Severus by Peter Green.
    • Brown, Peter - start with his biography (Augustine of Hippo) then read Through the Eye of the Needle and The Cult of the Saints, topped up Robin Lane Fox's provoking Augustine and James O'Donnell's more considered “Augustine, Sinner and Saint”.
    • Harden, Donald, The Phoenicians. — remains a useful introduction, grounded in ceramic types.
    • Hoyos, Dexter, The Carthaginians, Routledge, 2010 (peoples of the ancient world series) — a lifetimes knowledge in a deceptively slim volume. Excellent reading list for further research, including his other works on Hannibal and his wars.
    • MacKendrick, P., The North African Stones Speak, Croom Helm, London 1980 – Slightly quirky archaeologist's eye view of the Classical ruins of North Africa but achieved with diligence and honesty — has a copious bibliography.
    • Miles, Richard, Carthage Must be Destroyed, 2010 — a splendidly readable narrative but informed by serious scholarship which will, if you so wish, lead you back to the prime original sources, Plutarch, Polybius, Silius Italicus, Diodorus Siculus, Sallust and the Roman propaganda of Livy.
    • Picard, G & C, The Life and Death of Carthage, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1968 — written by a pair of French scholars (a husband and wife) team who therefore combine the detail of an on site archaeologist with the overview of a literate historian. Among many other relevant works they also produced the charming, Daily Life in Carthage: at the time of Hannibal, 1961.
    • Raven, Susan, Rome in Africa, London 1993 (3rd edition), Routledge — fluent regional study with a useful book list for those who want to study this period in further depth.
    • Warmington, B.H., Carthage, (Pelican 1964) — an accomplished history,satisfyingly well written for the general reader and innovative enough for the specialist.

    ALGERIA

    • Abbas, Ferhat, Autopsie d'une guerre, Paris 1981
    • Ageron, Charles Robert, Histoire de l'Algerie contemporien, 1871-1954, Paris 1979. With an English translation by Michael Brett — the best and most concise single explanation of modern Algeria.
    • Bazin, René, Charles de Foucauld, Paris 1921, trs by P. Keelan, London 1923 – still the ultimate source for many of the later biographies, studies and articles of this most extraordinary of Frenchmen (see entry under Foucauld in Morocco).
    • Belloc, Hilaire, Est Perpetua: Algerian Studies and Impressions, London 1906 — a curious period piece of colonial propaganda, washed over by a dangerous enthusiasm for the re-planting of the Roman Catholic church in North Africa.
    • Berque, Jacques, Le Maghreb entre deux guerres, Paris 1962 — a study of how the magnificent early success of French-ruled North Africa began to turn sour around 1934.
    • Bodley, Ronald V.C., Wind in the Sahara, London 1947, The Soundless Sahara, London 1968, Algeria from Within, London 1926, The Warrior Saint, London 1954 — all by Britain's leading Algeria and ‘Sahara hand'. The son of a Paris-based British historian of France, Ronald fought in the First World War trenches before rising, aged 26, to become one of the youngest Lt Colonels in the army. After the war he turned his back on western civilization, travelling through Algeria with nomad shepherds for the next eight years. Later work as a journalist, a script writer, and a lecturer prepared him for work in the intelligence services during the Second World War.
    • Bowles, Paul, The Sheltering Sky, London 1949 — although renowned for his Moroccan connection, Bowles's most powerful novel and many of his short stories are set in the Algerian Sahara.
    • Buchanan, Angus, Sahara, John Murray, London 1926 — endearing but very British Saharan adventure where animals — especially camels — come first.
    • Cauneille, A., Les Chaamba — leur nomadisme, Paris 1968 — regional study of the Arabic speaking Chaamba tribe of the northern Sahara.
    • Camus, Albert, Noces, Paris 1938, L'Etranger, Paris 1942 (translated as The Outsider, London 1946), La Peste, Paris 1947 (trs The Plague, London 1948), Le
    • Mythe de Sisyphe, (trs The Myth of Sisyphus, New York 1954), Resistance, Rebellion and Death, London 1961 and most recently — in 1995 — his memoir of an Algerian childhood, The First Man. Camus is one of the great and original writers of the twentieth century whose works now also keep the vanished culture of the pied noir colonial settlers alive.
    • Chapelle, Jean, Nomades Noirs du Sahara, Paris 1957 — scholarly look at that most unpinnable-down of all people, the Tebu of Tibesti.
    • Crewe, Quentin, In Search of the Sahara, London 1983 — entertaining travels by wheelchair-bound travel writer, wry, humorous, but — like many a similar Saharan expedition — travelling too quickly, too far. Enriched by Tim Beddow's photographs.
    • Eberhardt, Isabelle, A L'Ombre chaude de L'Islam, Notes de Route, Pages d'Islam, Au Pays des Sables — possibly the greatest female travel writer of the twentieth century with a life as vivid as any of her writing. She was the bastard daughter of an Orthodox priest who lived as rough as any of her corporal lovers from the Algerian ranks of the French army.
    • Evans, Martin and Phillips, John, Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed, Yale UP, 2007.
    • Ferraoun, Mouloud, Le Fils du Pauvre, 1950, La Terre et la Sang, Paris 1953, Les Chemins qui montent, Paris 1957 — novels that portray with documentary accuracy the reality of Algerian peasants in the last years of the colonial society.
    • Fromentin, Eugene, Une Année dans le Sahel, Un été dans le Sahara — nineteenth century travel writing from one of the greatest French painters of the steppe, delighting in the freedom of horse, wind and falcon, seemingly images of the old pre-colonial life of the tribes.
    • Gautier, E.F., Le Sahara (2nd edition), Paris 1928, trs Sahara: The Great Desert by D.F.Mayhew, New York 1935 — one of the first Saharan compendiums, filled with geology, geography, climate and some history.
    • Germain, J. and Faye, S., Le General Laperinne, Grand Saharien, Paris 1936 – biography of the conqueror and gentle administrator of the Sahara, a colonial hero of the old school to put alongside such other great Frenchmen in North Africa as Foucauld and Lyautey.
    • Gide, André, L'Immoraliste — the first great novel to chronicle the destruction of European morality in the alien culture of North Africa, and in particular the Algerian oasis of Biskra.
    • Horne, Alistair, A SavageWar of Peace, Algeria 1954-1962, London 1977 and later editions — one of the great histories of the twentieth century by a distinguished British historian specializing in the role of the army in French politics. Also contains a reasonably selective six-page bibliography for those wishing to dig further.
    • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de L'Afrique du Nord (two volumes), Paris 1978 – a prime source to put aside Abun Nasr.
    • Kiser, John W., The Monks of Tibhirine; faith, love and terror in Algeria, St Martins, 2002 — this curious tale of Christian monks murdered by terrorists takes us on a fascinating journey of personal redemption.
    • Keenan, Jeremy, The Tuareg: People of Ahaggar, London 1977 — the heir to Rodd's People of the Veil, a classic example of a well ordered regional study, lucid, personal yet scholarly.
    • Lajoux, J-D., The Rock Paintings of the Tassili, London 1963 — good quality photographs, as opposed to Lhote's enhanced drawings.
    • Lhote, H., The Search for the Tassili Frescoes, trs. A.H.Brodrick, London 1959 – the classic work, the chronology slightly chipped away by later experts but still standing as a work of scholarship.
    • Martinez, Luis, The Algerian Civil War 1990-1998, Hurst, 2000.
    • Maupassant, Guy de., Le Vie Erranate, Pierre et Jean, Au Soleil — novellas set in Algeria.
    • Memmi Albert, Anthologie des écrivains francais du Maghreb, Paris 1969 — a very useful source and sampler.
    • Monod, T., Meharees: Explorations au Vrai Sahara, Paris 1937 — one of the many publications by this key figure in Saharan exploration.
    • Nachtigal, G., Sahara et Soudan, trs. Goubault, Paris 1881.
    • Norris, H.T., The Tuaregs: Their Islamic legacy and its Diffusion in the Sahel, Warminster 1975, Saharan Myth and Saga, 1972, The Berbers in Arabic Literature, London 1982. Harry Norris is the great British expert on the indigenous literature and poetry of the Saharan peoples. Inspired as a young man by watching a cascade of late mediaeval literature being poured from a leather bag where it had been carefully hidden.
    • Norwich, John Julius (Lord), Sahara, Longman, London, 1968 — animated travels into the Tassili and Tibesti mountains by the erudite historian of Byzantium and Venice.
    • Ossendowski, Ferdinand, Breath of the Desert, London 1927.
    • Porch, Douglas, The Conquest of the Sahara, London 1985 — not the brutal conquest of northern Algeria but the more quixotic story of nineteenth-century Saharan exploration and twentieth-century conquest. A companion volume to The Conquest of Morocco, both books conceived from a French perspective.
    • Prorok, Byron de, Mysterious Sahara, John Murray, London 1930 — a name that still makes many a professional archaeologist spit blood. Showman, publicist and adventurer though he may be, he also unearthed the sanctuary of Tanit at Carthage and the tomb of Tin Hinan, the legendary ancestress of the Tuareg of the central Sahara.
    • Roberts, Hugh, The Battlefield: Algeria 1988-2002: Studies in a Broken Polity. Verso, 2003 — the long-awaited account of the recent civil war by Britain's leading observer of Algerian political realities.
    • Rodd, F.Rennel, People of the Veil, London 1926 — one of the first serious studies of the Tuareg, standing in direct succession to Foucauld's work.
    • Scott, Chris and contributors, Sahara Overland: A Route and Planning Guide, Trailblazer Publications, 2000 — the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to the practicalities of Saharan travel.
    • Seguin, L.G., Walks in Algiers and its Surroundings, London 1878 — half guide, half travelling companion to Algiers when it was the undisputed expatriate resort and ‘wintering' station.
    • Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jaques, Lieutenant en Algérie, Paris 1957, Lieutenant in Algeria, New York 1957 — devastating critique of the French military supression of the Algerian rebellion bya serving officerwhowentonto found L'Express
    • Shah-Kazemi, Reza (Ed), Revolution Revisited, Islamic World Report, 1997.
    • Stora, Benjamin, Algeria 1830-2000: A Short History (as translated for Cornell University from three previous studies in French), 2001.
    • Swift, Jeremy, The Sahara, Time-Life books, 1975.
    • Trench, Richard, Forbidden Sands, London 1978.
    • Trumelet, C., Le Francais dans le Desert (3rd edition), Paris, 1886 — early account of French military life in the Saharan regions.
    • Turnbull, Patrick, Sahara Unveiled, London 1940 — sub-titled ‘A great story of French colonial conquest' by a Foreign Legionnaire.
    • Wellard, James, The Great Sahara, New York, 1965.

    LIBYA

    • Barth, Heinrich, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa ( five volumes) London, 1857 or three volumes published in New York.
    • Bates, O., The Eastern Libyans, London, reprinted 1970.
    • Beechey, Capt F.W. & H.W.Beechey, Proceedings of the Expedition to Explore the Northern Coast of Africa, London, 1828.
    • Berenson, Mary, A vicarious trip to the Barbary Coast, London 1938 — curious but appealing book of letters as the wife of the famous art historian delves into the literary and historical sources.
    • Birley, Anthony, Septimius Severus, The African Emperor, Batsford 1988 – readable standard biography of the Libyan-born Emperor who beautified Leptis Magna and capped the golden age of the Antonines.
    • Briggs, L.C., Living Races of the Sahara, Cambridge Mass., 1958, Tribes of the Sahara, Cambridge Mass., 1958.
    • Brogan, Olwen and D.J.Smith, Ghirza, London 1984 — detailed survey of the tombs, manor-houses and outbuildings of the greatest of the Libyan steppe-land frontier towns.
    • Bovill, E.W., Missions to the Niger (four volumes), Cambridge for the Hakluyt Society 1964-1966 — the edited scholarly text of the Clapperton-Denham- Oudney Bornu expedition of 1822-25. Supplemented by posthumously published The Niger Explored, London 1968, taking the story from Mungo Park, through Gordon Laing, the Bornu mission to the last Clapperton-Landers expedition.
    • Caillié, Rene, Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctu (two volumes), London 1830.
    • Clapperton, Hugh, Difficult & Dangerous Roads: Hugh Clapperton's Travels in Sahara & Fezzan, edited by Jamie Bruce-Lockhart and John Wright, Sickle Moon Books, London 2000 — the notebooks suppressed by the jealousy of Major Denham, finally published almost two centuries later in a scholarly edition complete with maps and appendices.
    • Daniels, Charles, The Garamantes of Southern Libya, London, 1970
    • Davis, John, Libyan Politics, Tribe and Revolution: An account of the Zuwaya and their government, London 1987 — brilliant example of modern anthropology, focusing on modern kinship groups in the working of revolutionnary democracy.
    • Della Cella, P., Viaggio de Tripoli di Barbaria allla frontiere dell' Egitto,Rome1819 – one of the first European travellers to record his crossing of the Libyan shore, too often overlooked by Anglo-Saxon narratives.
    • Major Denham, Captain Clapperton and the late Dr Oudney, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the Years 1822, 1823 and 1824, John Murray, London 1826.
    • Deardon, Seton, A Nest of Corsairs: The Fighting Karamanlis of Tripoli, London 1976 — a page-turning narrative history of the eighteenth-century Karamanlis dynasty of Libya.
    • Denti di Pirajno, Alberto (Dr and Duke), A Cure for Serpents, London 1955 – exceptional collection of Saharan and Libyan tales from an Italian doctor; ironic, witty and amusing but with more cultural insights than many a weighty tome. His sequel, A Grave for a Dolphin, somehow loses the magic.
    • De Vita, Antonio et al, 1999, Libya : The Lost cities of the Roman Empire — a lavish photograph book of the classical monuments with useful maps and text.
    • Duveyrier, H. Exploration du Sahara: les Touareg du Nord (two vols), Paris 1864.
    • Epton, Nina, Oasis Kingdom, London 1952 — better than average postwar travelogue which vividly catches Libya on the cusp of independence.
    • Evans-Pritchard, E.E., The Senussi of Cyrenaica, Oxford 1949 — tribal anthrolopogy from the eastern half of Libya, a classic work of the postwar period.
    • Forbes, Rosita, The Secret of the The Sahara: Kufara, London 1937 — vividly recounted journey by camel to the Senussi controlled oases of the Sahara in eastern Libya. The formidable Rosita Forbes travelled with Hassanein Bey whose later explorations, detailed in Lost Oasis, opened up the Egyptian Sahara.
    • Gladstone, P., Travels of Alexine: Alexine Tinne (1835-1869), London 1970 — delightful life and tragic death of a dilettante European explorer of the Sahara. Goodchild, Richard, Benghazi 1959, Cyrene and Apollonia: a historical guide — no more than a pocket guidebook, but one filled with a lifetime of digging and research.
    • Griffin, Ernest. H., Adventures in Tripoli:ADoctor in the Desert, London 1924 — useful account of Italian invasion by British doctor on the ground.
    • Haynes, D.E.L., The Antiquities of Tripolitania, Tripoli 1965 — a perfect gem of a guidebook. Lucid, authoritative and much reprinted.
    • Holmboe, Knud, Desert Encounter: An Adventurous Journey through Italian Africa, Copenhagen 1931 — the slightly naïve Saharan journey of a young Danish convert to Islam but an important eyewitness account of the brutalities of the Italian conquest.
    • Horneman, Frederick, The Journal of Frederick Horneman's travels from Cairo to Mourzouk in the years 1797-8, London 1802 — one of the first fruits of London's African Society (the forerunner of the Royal Geographical Society) who despatched the young German into Libya as they sent Mungo Park up the Gambia.
    • Lander, R., Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa (two vols), London 1830 — Clapperton's logbook and journals were preserved and edited by his assistant, who completed the last of the great Saharan explorer's journeys.
    • Le Quellec, Jean-Loic, Art Rupestre et prehistoire du Sahara, Paris 1998 — best modern coverage of the carved rock art of the Messak region (just east of Jebel Akakus).
    • Levtzion, N. and Hopkins, J.F., Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, Cambridge 1981 — dry but useful sourcebook.
    • Lhote, H. The Search for the Tassili Frescoes, London 1959 — actually across the Libyan border in Algeria, but as the Libyan Jebel Akakus is the eastern edge of the Tassili there is much that is useful here.
    • Lyon, G.F., A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa in the Years 1818, 1819 and 1820, London 1821 — swashbuckling, life-enjoying exploration of the Sahara and Fezzan by a young naval officer who would later explore the Arctic and its women.
    • Mattingly, David J., Tripolitania, Batsford, London 1995 — the history of the Roman province of western Libya (and southern Tunisia) by its leading archaeologist. It is able to reverse the innate bias towards the great cities due to the rich results of the Libyan Valley surveys of the arid steppe lands.
    • Nachtigal, G., Sahara and Sudan (as translated and edited by A.G.B. and H.J. Fisher into four vols), London 1971-88.
    • Norris, H.T., The Tuaregs: Their Islamic legacy and its Diffusion in the Sahel, Warminster 1975, Saharan Myth and Saga, 1972, The Berbers in Arabic Literature, London 1982 — three books from one of the great British experts on the indigenous literature and poetry of the Saharan peoples.
    • Pacho, M.J.R., Voyage dans la Maramarique et..., Paris 1827 — early French traveller along the Libyan coast.
    • Pennell, C.R., London 1989, Piracy and Diplomacy in Seventeenth Century North Africa — The modern Barbary pirate expert turns his scholarly eye to the harbour of Tripoli. Richardson, J., Travels in the Great Desert of the Sahara in 1845 and 1846 (two vols), London 1848, Narrative of a Mission to Central Africa (two vols), London 1853 — important source, though the puritanical zeal of this anti-slavery missionary on the make sticks in the throat. After his death, on the second expedition, Heinrich Barth, takes over.
    • Rodd, Rennell (Lord), People of the Veil, London 1927 — classic early account of Tuareg history and society, and later, General William Eaton, London 1932 – the very model of the first ‘quiet American' mounting coups and invasions of Libya with breathless vigour and personal heroism to the ultimate destruction of all his confederates.
    • Rohlfs, G., Quer durch Afrika: Reise vom Mittelmeer nach dem Tschadsee und zum Golf von Guinea (2vols), Liepzig 1874-5 — the great and heroic German explorer of the Sahara, first to Kufara, Sigilmassa, the Draa — you name it. A fitting successor, a generation later, to Barth.
    • Smyth, W.H., The Mediterranean: A Memoir Physical, Historical and Nautical, London 1854 — a personal memoir from the Naval officer who mapped part of the Libyan coast, shipped out a gift of columns from Leptis Magna to the Hanoverian court and ‘discovered' Ghirza.
    • Todd, Mabel, Tripoli the Mysterious, Boston, Mass., 1912 — much-quoted source of pre-colonial Tripoli.
    • Tully, Richard, Narrative of Ten Years Residence at Tripoli, London 1819 — vivid first-hand account by British consul, much quoted and deservedly reprinted in a number of luxurious subsequent editions.
    • Ward, Phillip, Touring Libya: The Southern Provinces, London 1967, Touring Libya: The Eastern Provinces, London 1969, Touring Libya: The Western Provinces, London 1967, Sabratha, Cambridge 1969,Tripoli , Cambridge 1969 — small, literate guide books produced by a poet librarian. Now a useful source for the now vanished pre-oil boom, pre-Gaddafi Libya.
    • Wellard, James, The Lost Worlds of Africa, Hutchinson, London 1967 — well written, popular travelogue of Saharan mysteries. Part of a trilogy of desert books.
    • Williams, Gwyn, Green Mountain: an informal guide to Cyrenaica and its Jebel Akhdar, Faber, London 1968 — literate travelogue by determinedly Welsh poet and literary academic. Charming and washed with the British neo-colonial ‘protectorate' of the 50s, especially strong in war-savaged Cyrenaica.
    • Wright, John, Libya, London 1969 and even more so the later Libya: A modern History, London 1982 — is the standard modern history further supplemented by an in-depth study of Libya's Saharan ambitions in Libya, Chad and the Central Sahara, London 1989.

    MOROCCO

    • Addison, Rev, Lancelot (1632-1703), An Account of West Barbary, 1671 – Addison was an outspoken supporter of the High Church faction of the Church of England during the Commonwealth. His ordination was delayed until the Restoration, when he was also appointed chaplain to Lord Teviot who later served as Governor of Tangier for King Charles II. Addison lived in the English garrison town of Tangier for eight years.
    • Africanus, Leo (Hassan al-Wazzazi al-Fasi), Description of Africa — Andalucian born intellectual, educated in Fez but enslaved by Christian pirates raiding the Tunisian island of Jerba in 1520. Presented to Pope Leo X, who freed, baptised and encouraged his young protégé to write a description of North Africa. Written in Arabic but first published in Italian, author's own translation, in 1526. Invaluable source document.
    • Battuta, Ibn, (1304-1369), The Travels of Ibn Battuta 1325-1354 — first definitive European text established by C.Defrememery and B.R.Sanguinetti for Société Asiatique, Paris in four volumes 1853-8, translated into English by H.A.R.Gibb for the Hakluyt Society, 1958-2001. Islam's greatest traveller was born in Tangier. His travels were written down in Fez by order of the Sultan Abou Inan by one Ibn Juzayy. Designed for a Morrocan readership, the one region of Islam not well covered by these travels is of course the home turf, though it contains useful accounts of borderland territories as Andalucia and Timbuktu.
    • Amicis, Edmondo de (1846-1908), Morocco: Its People and Places — Italian travel writer who fought against the Austrians in 1867 and retained a lifelong interest in exploration. His books on Constantinople, Andalucia and the Netherlands were popular and influential, translated into both French and English with atmospheric illustrations. Well informed but heavily immersed in a romantic imagination.
    • Barbour, Nevill, Morocco, Thames & Hudson, 1965 — general study by one of the leading post-war British commentators on North Africa. Arguably becoming a little dated but remains a wonderfully fluent introduction.
    • Barea, Arturo. The Track, the second volume of the Forging of a Rebel trilogy which gves a first-hand account of the 1921-26 Rif rebellion.
    • Beauclerk, Captain G.(1822-59), A Journey to Morocco, London 1828 — officer of the Royal Welch Fusiliers serving in the Gibraltar garrison who in 1826 escorted a doctor summoned to serve at the court of Sultan Moulay Abdul- Rahman.
    • Bensusan, Samuel Levy (1872-1958), Morocco, London 1904 — part of a ‘nations of the world' series made doubly collectable by its handsome trade binding and illustrations specially drawn by A. S. Forrest. London-based man of letters, writing verse, criticsm, journalism, plays as well as working as a correspondent for Morocco. His knowledge of the country helped by Sephardic cousins in Fez and Gibraltar.
    • Besancot, Jean. Costumes at Types du Maroc, Paris 1942, Bijoux Arabes et Berbéres du Maroc, Casablanca 1954 — two albums of stylish water colours, conceived as ideal types rather than a catalogue of individual items.
    • Bey, Ali, (also Ali Bey el Abbassi, Domingo Badia y Leblich, General Badia, 1766-1818), Travels of Ali Bey — Catalan scholar, French spy and linguist. He studied at Valencia, journeyed to London in 1802 to seek the endorsement of the African Association for the exploration of the interior of Morocco. Landed in Tangier in 1803 disguised as a Syrian prince of noble lineage and was received at the court of Moulay Sliman before progressing to Mecca. Returned to the court of Napoleon as General Badia. In 1818 he planned to reach Timbuktu by journeying with a caravan of retruring pilgrims but died at Damascus en route to Mecca.
    • Bidwell, Margaret and Robin, Morocco: The Travellers Companion, London 1992 — a remarkable anthology of travel literature on Morocco, a labour of love and scholarship by a Cambridge professor and his psychologist wife. Contains a very useful, annotated bibliography.
    • Bowles, Paul — the travel books of this long-time American resident of Tangier (such as Their Heads are Green and Points in Time) are in fact less influential than his short stories, his three Maghrebi novels, Spiders House, Let it Come Down and The Sheltering Sky, and his important role in encouraging the work of such indigenous writers as Mohammed Mrabet.
    • Braithwaite, Captain John, History of the Revolutions in the Empire upon the Death of the late Emperor Muley Ishmael, London 1729 — officer in the private army of the Royal African Company who assisted in the conquest of Gibraltar in 1704 and escorted the embassy of John Russell from Tangier to the political capitals of Fez and Meknes in 1729. He wrote a dispassionate description which is a key source for a confusing period of dynastic rivalry. Buffa, John, Travels through the Empire of Morocco, London 1810 — British medical officer serving in Gibraltar who travelled through Morocco from Tangier to Larache to the political capitals of Fez and Meknes during the reign of Sultan Moulay Sliman (1792-1822).
    • Cailie, René (1799-1838),Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo and across the Great Desert to Morocco from 1824-28, first English edition London 1830 — one of the most modest and sympathetic of travellers, who was orphaned at an early age and died unknown. Born outside the privilieged circle of education, he travelled simply, made use of local dialects, and was later to be derided by his English rivals. He left France aged 17, travelling widely along the West African coast before achieving his extraordinary crossing of the Western Sahara from the Ivory Coast to Tangier via Timbuktu.
    • Chimenti, Elisa, Tales and Legends of Morocco — collected in the '30s and '40s by the daughter of a US doctor to Sultan Moulay Hassan.
    • De Castries, Colonel Henry (1845-1927), Sources de l'histoire du Maroc – hereditary count, obsessive bibliophile and French army officer with ten years' service on the southern frontier of Algeria. In retirement he helped organise a search through European archives to dig up all documents relevant to the diplomatic history of Morocco from 1530 to 1845. This extraordinary labour was eventually printed in twenty-six volumes.
    • Cook, Weston F., The Hundred Years War for Morocco, Westview-Boulder, 1994 — a blow-by-blow account of how the revolution in gunpowder technology transformed the sixteenth-century conflict between Morocco, Portugal and the Ottoman Empire.
    • Crapanzo, Vincent (1939-), Hamdusha, Berkeley, 1973 — study of a Sufi brotherhood based in the hills just to the north of the city of Meknes by American anthropologist.
    • Cunninghame-Graham, Robert Bontine (1852-1936), Moghreb-el-Acksa, London, 1898 — born into a landowning family in central Scotland but of a determinedly individual bent, this travel writer and political activist spent his early manhood working as a gaucho in the Argentinian pampas.ALiberalMP before becoming a Scottish nationalist, he was a friend to Conrad, Axel Munthe, Tschieffely, W.H.Hudson and Bernard Shaw. In 1897 he sailed down the coast of Morocco and attempted to cross the High Atlas and reach Taroudant. It was a quixotic gesture undertaken at a time when a number of British adventurers were trying to stake a claim to trading concessions in the Moroccan Sahara.
    • Curtis, Dr James, A Journey of Travels in Barbary in the year 1801, with observations on the gun trade of Senegal, London, 1803 — account by a British medical officer of the embassy delegation to Fez in 1801. His anti-French tone enhanced by his capture and imprisonment by the French whilst crossing back to Gibraltar.
    • Defoe, Daniel (1660-1731). The Life and Strange Suprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. The celebrated fictional creation of Robinson Crusoe was based on the experiences (including capture by Barbary corsairs) of Alexander Selkirk.
    • Delacroix, Eugene (1798-1863). This famous French painter was already obsessed by oriental themes (such as the Massacre of Chios and the Death of Sardanapulus) before his first visit to North Africa in the suite of the official delegation led by Count de Mornay in 1832. He produced dozens of finnished canvases on Moroccan themes (including Arab Tax, on which he was still working when he died) while the gradual publication of his sketch books, notes and letters have only further emphasised his enormous role as the primary visual interpreter of Morocco to the Western World. Selected Letters 1813-1863, as edited and translated by Jean Stewart, London 1971.
    • Eickelman, Dale (1942-), Moroccan Islam, Austin, Texas, 1976 — American academic study.
    • Epton, Nina, Saints and Sorcerers: A Moroccan Journey, London, 1958 — by a travel writer, journalist and broadcaster with a cosmopolitan background: a Spanish mother, a Scottish father and the advantage of a French education.
    • De Foucauld, Father/ Vicomte Charles (1858-1916), Reconnaisance au Maroc en 1883-1884, Paris 1888 — more talked about and written about than actually read, De Foucauld's life continues to exercise an unerring fascination. As a dissolute young cavalry officer he tried to spend his way through his aristocratic inheritance. Later he resigned from his cavalry regiment, then based in Algeria, in order to make a tactical reconnaissance of Morocco for the benefit of the French army, disguised as a poor Jewish trader. Having published this report he became a mendicant in southern Algeria, before becoming a Trappist monk in the Holy Land. He was ordained and then established his own order in the Tuareg-controlled mountains of central Sahara. There he devoted himself to scholarship on the Tamasheq language, testimony to Christ and supplying military information for the benefit of the French army. He was killed during the Senussi-backed uprising in the Sahara in 1916. The French army subsequently pardoned all rebels except the small band that had martyred De Foucauld.
    • Gellner, Ernest, Saints of the Atlas, University of Chicago 1969 — Czech-born but Cambridge-domiciled academic who produced this classic anthropological study of a zaouia in the High Atlas and the relationship of the hereditary saints with the surrounding mountain villlages. Other broader themes are discussed in such essay collections as Muslim Society and Arabs and Berbers.
    • Grove, Lady Agnes (1864-1926), Seventy-One Days Camping in Morocco, London, 1902 — redoubtable traveller, early feminist, social refomer and daughter of one of the founders of anthropology, Pitt-Rivers. Her account of her travels through Morocco is sympathetic and affectionate but should be read for its own charm rather than for topographical information.
    • Harris, Walter (1866-1933), Morocco That Was, London 1921, The Land of an African Sultan, London 1899, Tafilalet, 1895 — a flamboyant socialite, accomplished traveller, diligent journalist (who served as special correspondent to Morocco for The Times for forty years), triumphant name-dropper and raconteur. He was a friend to kings and a man capable of befriending his kidnapper (Raisouli of the Western Rif). For all his occassional whimsy few writers can equal his experience and affection for Morocco. His tomb can be seen in the Anglican cemetery in Tangier.
    • Hart, David Montgomery, The Ait Atta of southern Morocco, Menas Press, London — historical and anthropological study of militant pre-Saharan tribes. Other papers by Hart have investigated such equally renowned warrior societies as the Aith Waryghar of the Rif and the Reguibat of the western Sahara.
    • Hay, Sir John Drummond (1816-1893), Western Barbary: Its Wild Tribes and its Savage Animals, 1844 with a new edition in 1861, A Memoir of Sir John Drummond Hay, London, 1896 — accurate descriptions of life in Tangier from the lynchpin of the strong relationship between Britain and Morocco throughout the nineteenth century. Hay was the very model of a diplomat, a fluent linguist with a lifetime of knowledge about Morocco and a trusted personal adviser to three generations of Sultans. He was educated for the job, living with his father (Consul-general Edward Drummond-Hay) in Tangier from the age of sixteen.
    • Hopkins, John, Tangier Diaries, 1962-1979, London 1977 — intriguing insight into the expatriate milieu of European and American writers, painters and poets who settled in postwar Tangier and Marrakech.
    • Hooker and Ball (Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and John Ball), Journal of a Tour in Marocco and the Great Atlas, London, 1878 — botanising in the valleys and high slopes of the High Atlas by two high Victorian plant collectors. Hooker was at the top of the plant world, Director of Kew Gardens (succeeding his father to the post in 1855) and President of the Royal Society. Observant and committed, and with some good background detail, like the time they were blown off the mountain having disturbed the guardian spirit against the advice of their guides.
    • al-Idrisi (Abou Abdullah ibn Mohammed), The Book of Roger or A Description of Africa and Spain, Leyden 1866 or that edited by Jaubert, Paris 1840 — a painstakingly accurate account of the coast of North Africa written especially for Roger II of Sicily (1102-54). It was designed to accompany a silver map and presumably to help that ambitious monarch to plan further conquests. By 1148 he had seized six key ports on the Tunisian shore but The Book was not finally completed until 1154. An invaluable primary source. Jackson, G.A., Algiers: A Picture of the Barbary Coast, London, 1817 — a compilation of innumerable ‘captive accounts' that attempted to be a complete history of the Barbary Corsairs from Tripil, Tunis, Algiers and New Sallé. To be used with caution, for there is no evidence that Jackson ever travelled to North Africa.
    • Johnston and Cowan (Johnston, R.L.N. [1854-1918] and Cowan, George), Moorish Lotos Leaves: Glimpses of southern Morocco, London 1883 — the account of the travels of these two friends, respectively vice-consul and resident-merchant of Mogador, is a charming counter-blast to their many contemporaries. Thoroughly at home in Morocco, lodging with friendly tribal sheikhs and shooting partridge with old business contacts, they exhibit none of the customary paranoia and hostility of the average explorer. Johnston also (in the thin disguise of a translator) produced Fadma by Sidi Hammo, Tangier 1907, a book of verse that offers ‘startling revelation into the secret philosophy of the Berbers'.
    • Ibn Khaldoun, (1332-1406), The Muqaddimah — immensely influential introduction to his narrative history. Not to be classified as straight travel literature except that it was written by an exceptionally well-travelled and experienced scholar-administrator who is also North Africa's single greatest genius.
    • La Martinière, H.M.P., Morocco, London 1889 — one of the first French scholar-diplomats whose work is informed by one of the first archaeological digs in Morocco, in 1882, followed by three diplomatic postings between 1886 and 1902.
    • Landau, Rom (1899-1974), Invitation to Morocco, 1950, The Kasbas of southern Morocco, The Sultan of Morocco, Invitation to Morocco, the Beauty of Morocco, 1951, Portrait of Tangier, 1952, Moroccan Journal 1952. All published in London – influential member of political intelligence department of the British Foreign Office from 1941-44, philosopher, professor and prolific author with over forty books published. The Morocco books now appear rather thin, despite his working relationship with both the leaders of independent Morocco and the French colonial regime. Now more highly regarded for God is my Adventure and as co-founder of the World Congress of Faiths.
    • Lane-Poole, Stanley Edward (1854-1931), Barbary Corsairs, London 1890 — still one of best summaries, as one might expect from a professor of Arabic who was the son of a professor of Arabic and also the great-nephew of Edward Lane of The Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians fame. Leared, Arthur, A Visit to the Court of Morocco, London 1879, Marocco and the Moors, London 1891 — accurate observations, well recorded by a doctor in a diplomatic mission.
    • Legey, Francoise, The Folklore of Morocco, London 1935. French colonial doctor with long experience of the hidden realm of Moroccan female belief systems. A rare and valuable book.
    • Lempriere, William ( -1834), A Tour from Gibraltar to Tangier, Sallee, Mogadore, Santa Cruz, Tarudant, and thence over Mount Atlas to Morocco, including a particular account of the Royal harem, London 1791 — early and accurate account of palace life from a garrison doctor seconded to Sultan Sidi Mohammed III (1750-90) who would subsequently be appointed Inspector-General of British Army hospitals.
    • Lewis, Percy Wyndham (1882-1957), Filibusters in Barbary, London 1932 – boisterous description of travels through southern Morocco by an artist which consciously continues the story started by Cunninghame Graham — see above. Known for his restless, quarrelsome mind, he was part English, part American, part French. His support for Fascism has undermined his posthumous reputation.
    • Lilius, Aleko, Turbulent Tangier, London 1956 — journalist-like account of the dubious money-market and smuggling operations running out of post-war Tangier.
    • Lithgow, William (Lugless Will), Rare adventures and painful peregrinations of long nineteenth years Travayles from Scotland, London 1614 — curious, slightly prurient, meandering travels of a Scottish adventurer passing through Morocco in 1609. Much quoted, especially on the brothels and prostitutes of Fez.
    • Loti, Pierre (Commander Louis Marie Viaud, 1850-1923), Au Maroc — French naval officer who wrote a series of best-selling romantic travelogues, all more or less modelled on the success of Aziyade, his acount of a tragic love affair with a lady of Istanbul. He researched Au Maroc during a thirteen-day diplomatic mission to Tangier and Fez in 1889. Matisse, before coming to Morocco, first researched the country through the pages of Pierre Loti.
    • Mackenzie, Donald. The Khalifate of the West, London 1911 — surprisingly cogent account of turn-of-the-century Morocco by the man who had intended to flood the Western Sahara and who also established an illegal trading station at Cap Juby (Tarfaya) which he named Port Victoria.
    • Marmol y Carvajal, Luis de (1520-), Descripción general de Affrica — account of North Africa from a prisoner-of-war captured after the fall of Spanish-held fortress of La Goulette. Useful, but its accuracy has been frequently questioned. It is indeed difficult to understand how a prisoner could have travelled so widely during his eight years of captivity.
    • Maxwell, Gavin (1914-1969), Lords of the Atlas, The Rise and Fall of the House of Glaoua 1893-1956 — brilliantly told tale of the rise to power of a dynasty of Berber caids of the High Atlas spiked with frequent quotations from Walter Harris. Maxwell was a painter and travel writer who achieved fame through his books about trying to live with otters. His own descent from a proud family of castle-dwelling Border lords made him the perfect apologist for Thami el Glaoua.
    • Mayne, Peter (1908-), The Alleys of Marrakesh, London 1953 — amusing and knowledgeable portrait of the realities of everyday street life from a civil servant turned travel-writer. A classic of its sort.
    • Meakin, Budgett (1866-1906), Land of the Moors, London 1905, The Moorish Empire, Moors, Life in Morocco - encyclopeadic works by long-serving editor of The Times of Morocco who was well travelled, a fluent speaker of local dialects and a sympathetic observer of Islam.
    • Jacques-Meunie, D.J., Greniers Citadelles au Maroc, Paris 1951, Architectures et habitats du Dades, Paris 1962, Sites et Fortresses de L'Atlas, Paris 1951.
    • Mernissi, Fatima, Doing Daily Battle: Interviews with Moroccan Women, 1988 – prolific and passionate feminist, this collection of unadorned interviews are amongst the least polemical of her writings.
    • Montagne, Robert (1893-1954), The Berbers, translated by David Seddon, London 1973 — important work by influential French scholar-administrator based on many other individual studies such as Villages et Kasbahs Berberes, Les Berberes et le Makhzen dans le sud du Maroc, 1930 and La Civilisation du desert, 1947.
    • Mouette, Sieur (1652-91), Entertaining Travels in Fez and Morocco, London 1710 — observations based on capture in 1669 and twelve years' captivity.
    • Munson, Henry (1946-), The House of Si Abd Allah — transcripts of conversations with his wife's family — a gripping descent into the realities of poor farmers of the north. Later followed up by more professorial analysis of the conflicts between Sultans and holymen — Religion and Power in Morocco, Yale 1993.
    • Ockley, Simon (1678-1720), An account of South-West Barbary, London 1713. Prominent English Arabist of his day who edited this otherwise anonymous captive account.
    • Ogilby, John (1600-76), Africa, London 1670 — this beautiful 800-page encyclopaedia of North Africa, compiled by an impresario cum courtier-scholar, is often broken up in order to sell off its maps and engravings.
    • Peets, Leonara, Women of Marrakech 1930-79, London, 1992 — acute social observations by a long resident Estonian doctor.
    • Pellow, Thomas (1740-), The Adventures of Thomas Pellow of Penryn, etc — vivid account of life at the court of the Sultans by a Cornish cabin-boy who converted to Islam, took a Moorish wife and served the throne for 23 years before escaping home.
    • Pennell, C.R., Morocco since 1830, Hurst, 2000 — by one of the leading Anglo- Saxon historians of the Barbary coast.
    • Pepys, Samuel, The Tangier papers of Samuel Pepys, Naval records Society, London 1935 — record of the 1683 visit which determined to abandon the fortress.
    • Rabinow, Paul. Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco, Berkeley 1977 – confessional-like journal of a young anthropologist's experience of Moroccan society.
    • Rankin, Reginald, In Morocco with General D'Amade, London 1908 — eyewitness record of the first French landings by ex-colonel and then war correspondent of The Times.
    • Rogerson, Barnaby, Morocco (5th edition, London 2004) — historical and architectural guide-book.
    • Rohlfs, Gerhard (1831-1896), Adventures in Morocco and Journeys through the Oases of Draa and Tafilet, London 1874 — German doctor in Algerian war 1855-60 who became an intrepid Saharan explorer, the first European in such inaccesible oases as Tafilalet in Morocco and Kufra in Libya.
    • Routh, E.M.G., Tangier: England's Lost Atlantic Outpost 1661-1684, London 1912 — the definitive account.
    • de Saint-Exupéry, Antoine (1900-1943), Night Flight (Vol de Nuit), 1931, Wind, Sand and Stars (Terre de hommes), 1939 — incidents in the western Sahara from the pioneer poet of flight.
    • Smith, John (1580-1631), The Adventures and Discourses of Captain John Smith – this Jacobean James Bond (twice rescued by the love of an ‘enemy' woman), passed through Morocco in 1606.
    • le Tourneau, Roger, Fez in the Age of the Marinides (as translated by Besse Clement), Okhlahoma Press, 1961 — masterly and intimate.
    • Thomson, Joseph (1858-95), Travels in the Atlas and southern Morocco; A Narrative of Exploration, London 1889 — fearsome and fearless Scottish explorer, perhaps the first European to travel into the Atlas valleys.
    • Turnbull, Patrick (1908-), Black Barbary, London 1938, The Hotter Winds, London 1960 — travel accounts by a British officer who had served all over the world including a stint in the French Foreign legion.
    • Twain, Mark (1835-1910), The Innocents Abroad — includes a humorous, if less than affectionate, description of Tangier.
    • Usborne, Admiral C.V. (1880-1951), The Conquest of Morocco, London 1936, First Moroccan Journey, London 1938 — experienced naval officer who, having retired as Director of Naval Intelligence in 1933, struck up a close relationship with French authorities in Morocco.
    • Waterbury, John, North for the Trade, Berkeley 1972 — a personal anthropology of a Berber merchant by leading US academic.
    • Watson, Robert Spence (1837-1911), A Visit to Wazan, the Sacred City of Morocco, London 1880 — happy chronicle of a trip to the western Rif in 1879 under the patronage of the dominant sheikh.
    • Wazan, Emily (1850-1944), My Life Story, London 1911 — in 1872 a chance visit to Tangier as a Lady's companion resulted in Emily's marriage to the powerful Shareef of Wazzan. She bore him two children and after their divorce dedicated herself to charitable work.
    • Wendover, Roger and Paris, Matthew, Flowers of History — a twelfth-century historical chronicle created in St Albans Abbey that preserves the account of the embassy sent by King John of England to the Almohad ruler, Mohammed el Nasir, who is referred to as either Emir Mirmelius, the great king of Africa, or Miramumelinus (a corruption of Emir el Muminin - the commander of the faithful).
    • Westermarck, Edward (1862-1939), Ritual and Belief in Morocco, two vols, London 1926, Wit and Wisdom in Morocco, London 1938 — all the fun of anthropology and sociology by a dedicated Scandinavian researcher without anything about agnate kinships. A prime source.
    • Wharton, Edith (1862-1937), In Morocco — as a guest of the French colonial administration for a month in 1917 she rewarded her hosts with praise. Not her most insightful work.
    • Windus/Windhus, John, A Journey to Mequinez, London 1925 — careful, observant account of the 1720-21 diplomatic mission to Meknes includes a description of Volubulis before the Lisbon earthquake.

    SAHARA

    • Africanus, Leo (Hassan al-Wazzazi al-Fasi), Description of Africa — Andalucian born intellectual, educated in Fez but enslaved by Christian pirates raiding the Tunisian island of Jerba in 1520. Presented to Pope Leo X, who freed, baptised and encouraged his young protégé to write a description of North Africa. Written in Arabic but first published in Italian, author's own translation, in 1526. Invaluable source document.
    • Battuta, Ibn, (1304-1369), The Travels of Ibn Battuta 1325-1354 — first definitive European text established by C.Defrememery and B.R.Sanguinetti for Société Asiatique, Paris in four volumes 1853-8, translated into English by H.A.R.Gibb for the Hakluyt Society, 1958-2001. Islam's greatest traveller was born in Tangier. His travels were written down in Fez by order of the Sultan Abou Inan by one Ibn Juzayy. Designed for a Morrocan readership, the one region of Islam not well covered by these travels is of course the home turf, though it contains useful accounts of borderland territories as Andalucia and Timbuktu.
    • Amicis, Edmondo de (1846-1908), Morocco: Its People and Places — Italian travel writer who fought against the Austrians in 1867 and retained a lifelong interest in exploration. His books on Constantinople, Andalucia and the Netherlands were popular and influential, translated into both French and English with atmospheric illustrations. Well informed but heavily immersed in a romantic imagination.
    • Barbour, Nevill, Morocco, Thames & Hudson, 1965 — general study by one of the leading post-war British commentators on North Africa. Arguably becoming a little dated but remains a wonderfully fluent introduction.
    • Barea, Arturo. The Track, the second volume of the Forging of a Rebel trilogy which gves a first-hand account of the 1921-26 Rif rebellion.
    • Beauclerk, Captain G.(1822-59), A Journey to Morocco, London 1828 — officer of the Royal Welch Fusiliers serving in the Gibraltar garrison who in 1826 escorted a doctor summoned to serve at the court of Sultan Moulay Abdul- Rahman.
    • Bensusan, Samuel Levy (1872-1958), Morocco, London 1904 — part of a ‘nations of the world' series made doubly collectable by its handsome trade binding and illustrations specially drawn by A. S. Forrest. London-based man of letters, writing verse, criticsm, journalism, plays as well as working as a correspondent for Morocco. His knowledge of the country helped by Sephardic cousins in Fez and Gibraltar.
    • Besancot, Jean. Costumes at Types du Maroc, Paris 1942, Bijoux Arabes et Berbéres du Maroc, Casablanca 1954 — two albums of stylish water colours, conceived as ideal types rather than a catalogue of individual items.
    • Bey, Ali, (also Ali Bey el Abbassi, Domingo Badia y Leblich, General Badia, 1766-1818), Travels of Ali Bey — Catalan scholar, French spy and linguist. He studied at Valencia, journeyed to London in 1802 to seek the endorsement of the African Association for the exploration of the interior of Morocco. Landed in Tangier in 1803 disguised as a Syrian prince of noble lineage and was received at the court of Moulay Sliman before progressing to Mecca. Returned to the court of Napoleon as General Badia. In 1818 he planned to reach Timbuktu by journeying with a caravan of retruring pilgrims but died at Damascus en route to Mecca.
    • Bidwell, Margaret and Robin, Morocco: The Travellers Companion, London 1992 – a remarkable anthology of travel literature on Morocco, a labour of love and scholarship by a Cambridge professor and his psychologist wife. Contains a very useful, annotated bibliography.
    • Bowles, Paul — the travel books of this long-time American resident of Tangier (such as Their Heads are Green and Points in Time) are in fact less influential than his short stories, his three Maghrebi novels, Spiders House, Let it Come Down and The Sheltering Sky, and his important role in encouraging the work of such indigenous writers as Mohammed Mrabet.
    • Braithwaite, Captain John, History of the Revolutions in the Empire upon the Death of the late Emperor Muley Ishmael, London 1729 — officer in the private army of the Royal African Company who assisted in the conquest of Gibraltar in 1704 and escorted the embassy of John Russell from Tangier to the political capitals of Fez and Meknes in 1729. He wrote a dispassionate description which is a key source for a confusing period of dynastic rivalry. Buffa, John, Travels through the Empire of Morocco, London 1810 — British medical officer serving in Gibraltar who travelled through Morocco from Tangier to Larache to the political capitals of Fez and Meknes during the reign of Sultan Moulay Sliman (1792-1822).
    • Cailie, René (1799-1838),Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo and across the Great Desert to Morocco from 1824-28, first English edition London 1830 — one of the most modest and sympathetic of travellers, who was orphaned at an early age and died unknown. Born outside the privilieged circle of education, he travelled simply, made use of local dialects, and was later to be derided by his English rivals. He left France aged 17, travelling widely along the West African coast before achieving his extraordinary crossing of the Western Sahara from the Ivory Coast to Tangier via Timbuktu.
    • Chimenti, Elisa, Tales and Legends of Morocco — collected in the '30s and '40s by the daughter of a US doctor to Sultan Moulay Hassan.
    • De Castries, Colonel Henry (1845-1927), Sources de l'histoire du Maroc – hereditary count, obsessive bibliophile and French army officer with ten years' service on the southern frontier of Algeria. In retirement he helped organise a search through European archives to dig up all documents relevant to the diplomatic history of Morocco from 1530 to 1845. This extraordinary labour was eventually printed in twenty-six volumes.
    • Cook, Weston F., The Hundred Years War for Morocco, Westview-Boulder, 1994 — a blow-by-blow account of how the revolution in gunpowder technology transformed the sixteenth-century conflict between Morocco, Portugal and the Ottoman Empire.
    • Crapanzo, Vincent (1939-), Hamdusha, Berkeley, 1973 — study of a Sufi brotherhood based in the hills just to the north of the city of Meknes by American anthropologist.
    • Cunninghame-Graham, Robert Bontine (1852-1936), Moghreb-el-Acksa, London, 1898 — born into a landowning family in central Scotland but of a determinedly individual bent, this travel writer and political activist spent his early manhood working as a gaucho in the Argentinian pampas.ALiberalMP before becoming a Scottish nationalist, he was a friend to Conrad, Axel Munthe, Tschieffely, W.H.Hudson and Bernard Shaw. In 1897 he sailed down the coast of Morocco and attempted to cross the High Atlas and reach Taroudant. It was a quixotic gesture undertaken at a time when a number of British adventurers were trying to stake a claim to trading concessions in the Moroccan Sahara.
    • Curtis, Dr James, A Journey of Travels in Barbary in the year 1801, with observations on the gun trade of Senegal, London, 1803 — account by a British medical officer of the embassy delegation to Fez in 1801. His anti-French tone enhanced by his capture and imprisonment by the French whilst crossing back to Gibraltar.
    • Defoe, Daniel (1660-1731). The Life and Strange Suprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. The celebrated fictional creation of Robinson Crusoe was based on the experiences (including capture by Barbary corsairs) of Alexander Selkirk.
    • Delacroix, Eugene (1798-1863). This famous French painter was already obsessed by oriental themes (such as the Massacre of Chios and the Death of Sardanapulus) before his first visit to North Africa in the suite of the official delegation led by Count de Mornay in 1832. He produced dozens of finnished canvases on Moroccan themes (including Arab Tax, on which he was still working when he died) while the gradual publication of his sketch books, notes and letters have only further emphasised his enormous role as the primary visual interpreter of Morocco to the Western World. Selected Letters 1813-1863, as edited and translated by Jean Stewart, London 1971.
    • Eickelman, Dale (1942-), Moroccan Islam, Austin, Texas, 1976 — American academic study.
    • Epton, Nina, Saints and Sorcerers: A Moroccan Journey, London, 1958 — by a travel writer, journalist and broadcaster with a cosmopolitan background: a Spanish mother, a Scottish father and the advantage of a French education.
    • De Foucauld, Father/ Vicomte Charles (1858-1916), Reconnaisance au Maroc en 1883-1884, Paris 1888 — more talked about and written about than actually read, De Foucauld's life continues to exercise an unerring fascination. As a dissolute young cavalry officer he tried to spend his way through his aristocratic inheritance. Later he resigned from his cavalry regiment, then based in Algeria, in order to make a tactical reconnaissance of Morocco for the benefit of the French army, disguised as a poor Jewish trader. Having published this report he became a mendicant in southern Algeria, before becoming a Trappist monk in the Holy Land. He was ordained and then established his own order in the Tuareg-controlled mountains of central Sahara. There he devoted himself to scholarship on the Tamasheq language, testimony to Christ and supplying military information for the benefit of the French army. He was killed during the Senussi-backed uprising in the Sahara in 1916. The French army subsequently pardoned all rebels except the small band that had martyred De Foucauld.
    • Gellner, Ernest, Saints of the Atlas, University of Chicago 1969 — Czech-born but Cambridge-domiciled academic who produced this classic anthropological study of a zaouia in the High Atlas and the relationship of the hereditary saints with the surrounding mountain villlages. Other broader themes are discussed in such essay collections as Muslim Society and Arabs and Berbers.
    • Grove, Lady Agnes (1864-1926), Seventy-One Days Camping in Morocco, London, 1902 — redoubtable traveller, early feminist, social refomer and daughter of one of the founders of anthropology, Pitt-Rivers. Her account of her travels through Morocco is sympathetic and affectionate but should be read for its own charm rather than for topographical information.
    • Harris, Walter (1866-1933), Morocco That Was, London 1921, The Land of an African Sultan, London 1899, Tafilalet, 1895 — a flamboyant socialite, accomplished traveller, diligent journalist (who served as special correspondent to Morocco for The Times for forty years), triumphant name-dropper and raconteur. He was a friend to kings and a man capable of befriending his kidnapper (Raisouli of the Western Rif). For all his occassional whimsy few writers can equal his experience and affection for Morocco. His tomb can be seen in the Anglican cemetery in Tangier.
    • Hart, David Montgomery, The Ait Atta of southern Morocco, Menas Press, London – historical and anthropological study of militant pre-Saharan tribes. Other papers by Hart have investigated such equally renowned warrior societies as the Aith Waryghar of the Rif and the Reguibat of the western Sahara.
    • Hay, Sir John Drummond (1816-1893), Western Barbary: Its Wild Tribes and its Savage Animals, 1844 with a new edition in 1861, A Memoir of Sir John Drummond Hay, London, 1896 — accurate descriptions of life in Tangier from the lynchpin of the strong relationship between Britain and Morocco throughout the nineteenth century. Hay was the very model of a diplomat, a fluent linguist with a lifetime of knowledge about Morocco and a trusted personal adviser to three generations of Sultans. He was educated for the job, living with his father (Consul-general Edward Drummond-Hay) in Tangier from the age of sixteen.
    • Hopkins, John, Tangier Diaries, 1962-1979, London 1977 — intriguing insight into the expatriate milieu of European and American writers, painters and poets who settled in postwar Tangier and Marrakech.
    • Hooker and Ball (Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and John Ball), Journal of a Tour in Marocco and the Great Atlas, London, 1878 — botanising in the valleys and high slopes of the High Atlas by two high Victorian plant collectors. Hooker was at the top of the plant world, Director of Kew Gardens (succeeding his father to the post in 1855) and President of the Royal Society. Observant and committed, and with some good background detail, like the time they were blown off the mountain having disturbed the guardian spirit against the advice of their guides.
    • al-Idrisi (Abou Abdullah ibn Mohammed), The Book of Roger or A Description of Africa and Spain, Leyden 1866 or that edited by Jaubert, Paris 1840 — a painstakingly accurate account of the coast of North Africa written especially for Roger II of Sicily (1102-54). It was designed to accompany a silver map and presumably to help that ambitious monarch to plan further conquests. By 1148 he had seized six key ports on the Tunisian shore but The Book was not finally completed until 1154. An invaluable primary source. Jackson, G.A., Algiers: A Picture of the Barbary Coast, London, 1817 — a compilation of innumerable ‘captive accounts' that attempted to be a complete history of the Barbary Corsairs from Tripil, Tunis, Algiers and New Sallé. To be used with caution, for there is no evidence that Jackson ever travelled to North Africa.
    • Johnston and Cowan (Johnston, R.L.N. [1854-1918] and Cowan, George), Moorish Lotos Leaves: Glimpses of southern Morocco, London 1883 — the account of the travels of these two friends, respectively vice-consul and resident-merchant of Mogador, is a charming counter-blast to their many contemporaries. Thoroughly at home in Morocco, lodging with friendly tribal sheikhs and shooting partridge with old business contacts, they exhibit none of the customary paranoia and hostility of the average explorer. Johnston also (in the thin disguise of a translator) produced Fadma by Sidi Hammo, Tangier 1907, a book of verse that offers ‘startling revelation into the secret philosophy of the Berbers'.
    • Ibn Khaldoun, (1332-1406), The Muqaddimah — immensely influential introduction to his narrative history. Not to be classified as straight travel literature except that it was written by an exceptionally well-travelled and experienced scholar-administrator who is also North Africa's single greatest genius.
    • La Martinière, H.M.P., Morocco, London 1889 — one of the first French scholar-diplomats whose work is informed by one of the first archaeological digs in Morocco, in 1882, followed by three diplomatic postings between 1886 and 1902.
    • Landau, Rom (1899-1974), Invitation to Morocco, 1950, The Kasbas of southern Morocco, The Sultan of Morocco, Invitation to Morocco, the Beauty of Morocco, 1951, Portrait of Tangier, 1952, Moroccan Journal 1952. All published in London – influential member of political intelligence department of the British Foreign Office from 1941-44, philosopher, professor and prolific author with over forty books published. The Morocco books now appear rather thin, despite his working relationship with both the leaders of independent Morocco and the French colonial regime. Now more highly regarded for God is my Adventure and as co-founder of the World Congress of Faiths.
    • Lane-Poole, Stanley Edward (1854-1931), Barbary Corsairs, London 1890 — still one of best summaries, as one might expect from a professor of Arabic who was the son of a professor of Arabic and also the great-nephew of Edward Lane of The Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians fame. Leared, Arthur, A Visit to the Court of Morocco, London 1879, Marocco and the Moors, London 1891 — accurate observations, well recorded by a doctor in a diplomatic mission.
    • Legey, Francoise, The Folklore of Morocco, London 1935. French colonial doctor with long experience of the hidden realm of Moroccan female belief systems. A rare and valuable book.
    • Lempriere, William ( -1834), A Tour from Gibraltar to Tangier, Sallee, Mogadore, Santa Cruz, Tarudant, and thence over Mount Atlas to Morocco, including a particular account of the Royal harem, London 1791 — early and accurate account of palace life from a garrison doctor seconded to Sultan Sidi Mohammed III (1750-90) who would subsequently be appointed Inspector-General of British Army hospitals.
    • Lewis, Percy Wyndham (1882-1957), Filibusters in Barbary, London 1932 – boisterous description of travels through southern Morocco by an artist which consciously continues the story started by Cunninghame Graham — see above. Known for his restless, quarrelsome mind, he was part English, part American, part French. His support for Fascism has undermined his posthumous reputation.
    • Lilius, Aleko, Turbulent Tangier, London 1956 — journalist-like account of the dubious money-market and smuggling operations running out of post-war Tangier.
    • Lithgow, William (Lugless Will), Rare adventures and painful peregrinations of long nineteenth years Travayles from Scotland, London 1614 — curious, slightly prurient, meandering travels of a Scottish adventurer passing through Morocco in 1609. Much quoted, especially on the brothels and prostitutes of Fez.
    • Loti, Pierre (Commander Louis Marie Viaud, 1850-1923), Au Maroc — French naval officer who wrote a series of best-selling romantic travelogues, all more or less modelled on the success of Aziyade, his acount of a tragic love affair with a lady of Istanbul. He researched Au Maroc during a thirteen-day diplomatic mission to Tangier and Fez in 1889. Matisse, before coming to Morocco, first researched the country through the pages of Pierre Loti.
    • Mackenzie, Donald. The Khalifate of the West, London 1911 — surprisingly cogent account of turn-of-the-century Morocco by the man who had intended to flood the Western Sahara and who also established an illegal trading station at Cap Juby (Tarfaya) which he named Port Victoria.
    • Marmol y Carvajal, Luis de (1520-), Descripción general de Affrica — account of North Africa from a prisoner-of-war captured after the fall of Spanish-held fortress of La Goulette. Useful, but its accuracy has been frequently questioned. It is indeed difficult to understand how a prisoner could have travelled so widely during his eight years of captivity.
    • Maxwell, Gavin (1914-1969), Lords of the Atlas, The Rise and Fall of the House of Glaoua 1893-1956 — brilliantly told tale of the rise to power of a dynasty of Berber caids of the High Atlas spiked with frequent quotations from Walter Harris. Maxwell was a painter and travel writer who achieved fame through his books about trying to live with otters. His own descent from a proud family of castle-dwelling Border lords made him the perfect apologist for Thami el Glaoua.
    • Mayne, Peter (1908-), The Alleys of Marrakesh, London 1953 — amusing and knowledgeable portrait of the realities of everyday street life from a civil servant turned travel-writer. A classic of its sort.
    • Meakin, Budgett (1866-1906), Land of the Moors, London 1905, The Moorish Empire, Moors, Life in Morocco — encyclopeadic works by long-serving editor of The Times of Morocco who was well travelled, a fluent speaker of local dialects and a sympathetic observer of Islam.
    • Jacques-Meunie, D.J., Greniers Citadelles au Maroc, Paris 1951, Architectures et habitats du Dades, Paris 1962, Sites et Fortresses de L'Atlas, Paris 1951.
    • Mernissi, Fatima, Doing Daily Battle: Interviews with Moroccan Women, 1988 – prolific and passionate feminist, this collection of unadorned interviews are amongst the least polemical of her writings.
    • Montagne, Robert (1893-1954), The Berbers, translated by David Seddon, London 1973 — important work by influential French scholar-administrator based on many other individual studies such as Villages et Kasbahs Berberes, Les Berberes et le Makhzen dans le sud du Maroc, 1930 and La Civilisation du desert, 1947.
    • Mouette, Sieur (1652-91), Entertaining Travels in Fez and Morocco, London 1710 – observations based on capture in 1669 and twelve years' captivity.
    • Munson, Henry (1946-), The House of Si Abd Allah — transcripts of conversations with his wife's family — a gripping descent into the realities of poor farmers of the north. Later followed up by more professorial analysis of the conflicts between Sultans and holymen — Religion and Power in Morocco, Yale 1993.
    • Ockley, Simon (1678-1720), An account of South-West Barbary, London 1713. Prominent English Arabist of his day who edited this otherwise anonymous captive account.
    • Ogilby, John (1600-76), Africa, London 1670 — this beautiful 800-page encyclopaedia of North Africa, compiled by an impresario cum courtier-scholar, is often broken up in order to sell off its maps and engravings.
    • Peets, Leonara, Women of Marrakech 1930-79, London, 1992 — acute social observations by a long resident Estonian doctor.
    • Pellow, Thomas (1740-), The Adventures of Thomas Pellow of Penryn, etc — vivid account of life at the court of the Sultans by a Cornish cabin-boy who converted to Islam, took a Moorish wife and served the throne for 23 years before escaping home.
    • Pennell, C.R., Morocco since 1830, Hurst, 2000 — by one of the leading Anglo- Saxon historians of the Barbary coast.
    • Pepys, Samuel, The Tangier papers of Samuel Pepys, Naval records Society, London 1935 — record of the 1683 visit which determined to abandon the fortress.
    • Rabinow, Paul. Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco, Berkeley 1977 - confessional-like journal of a young anthropologist's experience of Moroccan society.
    • Rankin, Reginald, In Morocco with General D'Amade, London 1908 — eyewitness record of the first French landings by ex-colonel and then war correspondent of The Times.
    • Rogerson, Barnaby, Morocco (5th edition, London 2004) — historical and architectural guide-book.
    • Rohlfs, Gerhard (1831-1896), Adventures in Morocco and Journeys through the Oases of Draa and Tafilet, London 1874 — German doctor in Algerian war 1855-60 who became an intrepid Saharan explorer, the first European in such inaccesible oases as Tafilalet in Morocco and Kufra in Libya.
    • Routh, E.M.G., Tangier: England's Lost Atlantic Outpost 1661-1684, London 1912 — the definitive account.
    • de Saint-Exupéry, Antoine (1900-1943), Night Flight (Vol de Nuit), 1931, Wind, Sand and Stars (Terre de hommes), 1939 — incidents in the western Sahara from the pioneer poet of flight.
    • Smith, John (1580-1631), The Adventures and Discourses of Captain John Smith – this Jacobean James Bond (twice rescued by the love of an 'enemy' woman), passed through Morocco in 1606.
    • le Tourneau, Roger, Fez in the Age of the Marinides (as translated by Besse Clement), Okhlahoma Press, 1961 — masterly and intimate.
    • Thomson, Joseph (1858-95), Travels in the Atlas and southern Morocco; A Narrative of Exploration, London 1889 — fearsome and fearless Scottish explorer, perhaps the first European to travel into the Atlas valleys.
    • Turnbull, Patrick (1908-), Black Barbary, London 1938, The Hotter Winds, London 1960 — travel accounts by a British officer who had served all over the world including a stint in the French Foreign legion.
    • Twain, Mark (1835-1910), The Innocents Abroad — includes a humorous, if less than affectionate, description of Tangier.
    • Usborne, Admiral C.V. (1880-1951), The Conquest of Morocco, London 1936, First Moroccan Journey, London 1938 — experienced naval officer who, having retired as Director of Naval Intelligence in 1933, struck up a close relationship with French authorities in Morocco.
    • Waterbury, John, North for the Trade, Berkeley 1972 — a personal anthropology of a Berber merchant by leading US academic.
    • Watson, Robert Spence (1837-1911), A Visit to Wazan, the Sacred City of Morocco, London 1880 — happy chronicle of a trip to the western Rif in 1879 under the patronage of the dominant sheikh.
    • Wazan, Emily (1850-1944), My Life Story, London 1911 — in 1872 a chance visit to Tangier as a Lady's companion resulted in Emily's marriage to the powerful Shareef of Wazzan. She bore him two children and after their divorce dedicated herself to charitable work.
    • Wendover, Roger and Paris, Matthew, Flowers of History — a twelfth-century historical chronicle created in St Albans Abbey that preserves the account of the embassy sent by King John of England to the Almohad ruler, Mohammed el Nasir, who is referred to as either Emir Mirmelius, the great king of Africa, or Miramumelinus (a corruption of Emir el Muminin - the commander of the faithful).
    • Westermarck, Edward (1862-1939), Ritual and Belief in Morocco, two vols, London 1926, Wit and Wisdom in Morocco, London 1938 — all the fun of anthropology and sociology by a dedicated Scandinavian researcher without anything about agnate kinships. A prime source.
    • Wharton, Edith (1862-1937), In Morocco — as a guest of the French colonial administration for a month in 1917 she rewarded her hosts with praise. Not her most insightful work.
    • Windus/Windhus, John, A Journey to Mequinez, London 1925 — careful, observant account of the 1720-21 diplomatic mission to Meknes includes a description of Volubulis before the Lisbon earthquake.

    TUNISIA

    • Anderson, L., The State and Social Transformation in Tunisia and Libya, 1830 -1980, Princeton.
    • Anthony, J., About Tunisia, Geoffrey Bles, London 1961 — an unpromising title but a refreshingly candid account of a lesser diplomat's life in the country just before Independence. Written by an American, content to picnic with the pied noir, make love with local artists in Sidi Bou Said and hang out with the aesthetic expatriates in Hammamet.
    • Baring, Rose and Rogerson, Barnaby, Tunisia, Cadogan, London 1999 — useful guidebook to the historical monuments, archaeological sites and traditional architecture.
    • Broughton Brodrick, A., Parts of Barbary, Hutchinson, London 1943 — dated travelogue but still entertaining.
    • Bovill, E.V., The Golden Trade of the Moors, OUP — traces the influence of trans-Saharan trade. Written with a fresh enthusiasm that has inspired many. Bruce, J., Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790) — this famous early traveller, having failed as Consul in Algiers passed through Tunisia on his way south and east.
    • Barth, Dr. H., Travels in North and Central Africa (1845-1855) — the unsung scholar-hero of Saharan exploration was among the first to map out the ruins of the Tunisian interior on his way south.
    • Brunn, D., Cave Dwellers of Southern Tunisia, 1898 — an informed account by a Danish anthropologist of the life of the Berber tribes in the Matmata hills.
    • Brown, L.C., The Tunisia of Ahmed Bey 1837-1855, Princeton 1974. The first half of this book provides an excellent picture of the pre-protectorate society.
    • Carrington, R., East from Tunis, Chatto and Windus, London 1957 — chatty, informed chronicle of a trip from Tunis to Cairo in 1955.
    • Douglas, Norman, Fountains in the Sand, London 1912 — a witty jamboree of speculation, stone-tool hunting, social observation and kif-fuelled irony set in an oasis town of southern Tunisia that is dominated by colonial engineers, remittance men and failed speculators. To be read for its devastating insight into colonial society in the pre-First World War protectorate than for any insights into the history of the Maghreb.
    • Dumas, A., Tangier to Tunis, reprinted Peter Owen, London 1959 — an account of an officially sponsored PR tour through North Africa in 1846, though Dumas overdoes things by commandeering a French warship as his cruise ship.
    • Dunbar, Ianthe, The Edge of the Desert, Phillip Allan, London 1923 — handsome travelogue with illustrations by the author.
    • Duvignaud, J., Change at Shebika, Penguin, London 1978 — a fascinating survey of the changes in a small oasis community in the 1960s, written for the layman.
    • Flaubert, G., Salammbo — now an archetypal orientalist fantasy: a tale of cruelty, treachery, luxury and unchecked sexuality, based on the revolt of the Carthaginian Mercenaries. At the time of publication it was praised for its meticulous research.
    • Furlonge, G., The Lands of Barbary, John Murray, London 1966 — just better than average travelogue.
    • Gallagher, Nancy Elizabeth, Medicine and Power in Tunisia, 1780-1900, Cambridge, 1974 — this discouraging title hides a fluent social history of nineteenth- century plagues.
    • Gide, André, Amyntas, Ecco Press 1988 — a series of sensual vignettes from extensive travels through Algeria and Tunisia at the turn of the century by a future Nobel Prize winner.
    • Graham, A. and Ashbee, H.S., Travels in Tunisia, 1887.
    • Hejaiej, N., Behind Closed Doors: Women's Oral Narratives in Tunis, Quartet, 1996 — anthology of folk tales recited in the women's quarters.
    • Hess Wartegg, Chevalier de, Tunis: The Land and the People, Chatto and Windus, London 1899 — an intriguing and largely unprejudiced account of the last years of Beylical rule.
    • Hammerton, T., Tunisia Unveiled, Robert Hale, London 1959 — competent but uninspiring account of the main tourist sites.
    • Huxley, Aldous. In a Tunisia Oasis, in a collection of stories called The Olive Tree, Chatto and Windus, London 1939.
    • Johnston, Sir Harry, A journey through the Tunisian Sahara, Geographical Journal Vol XI, June 1898 pp 581-608 — an entertaining glimpse of nineteenth-century enthusiasms, with spurious speculation on phallic worship and the origin of the races.
    • Knapp, W., Tunisia, Thames and Hudson, London 1970 — a standard national portrait with illustrations concentrating on the modernisation of the newly independent Tunisia.
    • MacCallum Scott, A., Barbary: The Romance of the Nearest East, Thornton Butterworth, London 1921 — random speculations by an MP on literature and the future of French colonialism in North Africa.
    • Mariner, J., The Shores of the Black Ships, William Kimbe, London 1971 — a drab diary of day trips from a yachting holiday masquerading as a study of the Phoenicians.
    • Martin, Dahris, Among the Faithful, London, Michael Joseph 1937 — an account of two years spent in the old city of Kairouan in the '30s. A precious insight into the domestic space and traditional society of Tunisia; stirred up the narrator's relationship to the beguiling if villainous anti-hero.
    • MacKendrick, P., The North African Stones Speak, Croom Helm, London 1980 – quirky, archaeologist's eye view of the ruins, with four chapters on Tunisia and a copious bibliography.
    • Messenger, C., The Tunisian Campaign, Ian Allen 1982 — packed with photographs and maps, but perilously close to an official history.
    • Perkins, W., Tunisia, Crossroads of Islamic and European Worlds, Croom Helm, London.
    • Petrie, G., Tunis, Kairouan and Carthage, Heinemann, London 1908 — chiefly valued for its charming illustrations.
    • Picard, Gilbert Charles and Picard, Colette, The Life and Death of Carthage, Sidgwick and Jackson, London 1968 — an authoritative review by the French archaeologists who excavated Carthage and Makhtar.
    • Playfair, R.L., Handbook for Travellers in Algeria and Tunis, Murray's red handbooks, 1891 — one of the very first guidebooks, by the same British consul who compiled an exhaustive North African bibliography.
    • Rankin, Reginald (Lt. Col. Sir ), Tunisia, Bodley Head, London 1901 — virtually a gun-room monologue with the colonel's thoughts and experiences on his sporting tour.
    • Salem, N., Habib Bourguiba, Islam and the creation of Modern Tunisia, Croom Helm, London 1985.
    • Shaw, Dr. T., Travels and Observations in Barbary, London, 1757 — for all his personal faults an important early source, especially on the state of antiquities that were later quarried. Sitwell, Sacheverall, Mauretania, London, 1939 — not his field, and seemingly distracted by the presence of two lovers, whilst motoring through North Africa.
    • Temple, Sir Greville, Excursions in the Mediterranean (1835) — early ruin-hunting.
    • Tillion, G., The Republic of Cousins: Women's Oppression in Mediterranean Society, Al Saqi, London 1983 — celebrated analysis of the root causes of oppression.
    • Tlili, Mustapha, Lion Mountain, 1998 (originally La Montagne du Lion, Gallimard, Paris 1988) — a classic piece of modern Maghrebi fiction, in that the narrator has self-confessedly become westernised and increasingly removed from the traumatic local loyalties he describes so forcefully. Set in a traditional community in southern Tunisia, it is a useful antidote to the ceaseless propaganda of modernism.
    • Warrington, B.H., Carthage, (Pelican 1964) — an accomplished history, satisfyingly well written for the general reader and innovative enough for the specialist.
    • Valenski, L. and Udovitch, A. The Last Arab Jews (Harwood Academic Publishers 1985) "—" a study of the Jewish community on the Island of Jerba.
    OTHER BOOKS


  • Recent Books
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